Coal in cosmetics - What is activated carbon?

What is activated carbon?

Activated carbon is coarse to fine-grained coal with a very large surface area. It finds application in many areas from industry, medicine, to home technology. It is usually sold as grains or fine-grained powder.[1]

How does activated carbon work?

Activated carbon has a huge surface. With between 300 and 2000m2 / g, one gram of A-Co has about the surface of a football field. With this very large surface also come very large surface forces. Due to these forces, the A-coal is able to bind any particles. Such particles include dust and dirt particles or poisonous, colored and aromatic substances. [2]

How is activated carbon produced?

Activated carbon is produced from any sources of carbon, such as plant material, but also by hard coal and lignite. In this process, organic compounds are treated chemically or physically until mainly carbon is left over. Subsequently, this coal is "activated" by reacting, by oxidation with water vapor or atmospheric oxygen, parts of the carbon in carbon monoxide and then in carbon dioxide. This creates a holey, spongy network of activated carbon. [3]

Where is activated carbon used?

A coal is used in cleaning and processing in air conditioning and ventilation systems, as a carrier of catalysts and workup agents in the chemical industry, as a toxicant-binding substance in medicine, for the removal of undesirable flavors, or dyes in food (eg in vodka and Rum), used as a filter in respirators and as aquarium, pond and drinking water filter. In addition, it is used in cosmetics, in toothpaste, where it has a whitening, and in face masks, in which it has a fat and dirt binding effect.[4]

Sources and information to read:


Pestizide – Was ist das Eigentlich ?

What are pesticides?

The word "pesticide" can be derived from Latin, pestis → plague, and caedere → kill. Pesticides are chemicals that reduce the persistence of unwanted and or harmful animals. They are used in crop protection, for the cultivation of u.a. Fruit, vegetables and cereals, as well as for the hygienic protection used in the production, processing, packaging and distribution of food and the like. [1]

What are pesticides chemically?

Pesticides refers to the super-grouping of all agents that protect plants and humans from pests and micro-organisms. They have many subgroups, of which the relevant ones are:

  • Pesticides; They protect plants from predators and pathogens

  • biocides; They have many target organisms, including microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, as well as larger organisms such as e.g. Insects or rodents.

  • herbicides; Weed killers, which target or radical against plant life proceed.

Zu den Pflanzenschutzmitteln zählen Biozide, Herbizide, sowie Wachstumsregulatoren. Solche sind z.B. Insektizide, welche hauptsächlich aus Phosphorsäureestern, Carbamaten, Neonicotinoiden und Pyrethroiden zählen. Natürliche Insektizide sind z.B. Nikotin, Anabasin oder Piperin. Zu den angewandten Herbiziden gehören Aminosäurederivate wie das Glyphosat (eingestuft nach WHO als Karzinogen 2A, „steht im starkem Verdacht Krebs im Menschen auszulösen“[2]). Diese machen ca. 18% der weltweit eingesetzten Herbizide aus[3]. Die Sulfonylharnstoffe, wie z.B. das Amidosulforon (Nach GESTIS-Stoffdatenbank stark Gewässergefährdend[4]). Diese machen rund 10,8% der weltweit eingesetzten Herbizide aus. [5]

The biocides are used outside the cultivation of plants, in the processing, production and distribution of food and other consumer goods. For example, Disinfectants with the subcategories of bactericides (kill off bacteria), virucides (kill off viruses), algicides (kill off algae) and fungicides (kill fungus). Such substances are among aldehydes, alcohols and chlorine-containing substances. In addition, the biocides include the rodenticides, the rodent control agents, mostly coumarin derivatives, which prevent blood clotting. There are also avicides (against birds), molluscicides (against snails), piscicides (against fish), acaricides (against arthropods) and nematicides (against roundworms). [6] All have their respective permitted and prohibited substances. [7]

How harmful are pesticides?

Pesticides can potentially cause damage to ecosystems, humans, and organisms for which they are not made. They are a constantly occurring and difficult to treat topic. Many studies on pesticides have no precise statements regarding their toxicology, KRM effect, or ecotoxicology. So there is no clear picture to the currently used pesticides. They move in gray areas, which represent clear applications in contrast to inaccurate, possible damage, that is to say the benefit of security due to ignorance. In recent decades, some pesticides have been banned. [8] And a few even worldwide, as part of the so-called Dirty Twelve (English "Dirty Dozen"). Although in Germany the "as low as reasonably achivable" principle for the limits of pesticide-restricted fruit, vegetables and cereals must be strictly adhered to, the amounts found are still considered harmful. [10]

Pesticides in cosmetics

Especially in natural cosmetics, in which herbal ingredients make up a large part of the composition, the question arises "Are there pesticide residues?". Depending on the initial conviction, this answer is different. If the plants were cultivated without pesticides, none are present in the plant raw material. If they were cultivated with pesticides, these traces are in the plant raw material. And yet, biocides can be included in the final product. Substances that protect the product itself. Of course, no such, as they are used in large-scale cultivation, but still. [11]

Are there alternatives ?

There are natural sources of plants own pesticides, nicotine, anabasine, piperine and the currently interesting pelagronic acid. Or natural predators of pests. But they are not effective enough for human needs, or cause other harvesting or processing problems. Germany alone has an annual consumption of more than 48 thousand tons of pesticides of all kinds (as of 2017) [12]. However, biological pesticides are on the rise, but are not least held back by the economic aspect. Global sales of crop protection products increased by 5.6% in 2017 to around € 47.62 billion. [13] Nevertheless, the research is progressing steadily, and maybe the "dirty dozen" will soon get a dozen more.

What does all this mean now?

Pesticides are not such a big topic for nothing. Without them, it would be healthier, more environmentally friendly, hyperbolic, even utopian. At the moment, though, that's exactly what utopia is. With around 7.6 billion people, many with virtually nothing and even more who are already struggling to survive, one must think of the need for care. A similarly difficult topic would be nuclear power plants. They are far from being environmentally friendly and, moreover, represent a huge hazard. Although nuclear power only supplies about 11.7% (as of 2017) [14] of the electricity, it would now become 11,7% from one day to the next % are missing, so the cost would rise to the priceless. Like pesticides, it would be better without them, but we could not meet the needs, not those who are already starving, not those who are worried about hunger, or those who are not hungry at the moment are.

Quellen und Info zum nachlesen:

Entry on pesticides of the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment[6][7][8]

Stockholm Convention on the "dirty dozen"[9]

Statistics on power generation[14]

Article on sales of plant protection products of the Agricultural Industry Association[13]

PDF of the Federal Office for Consumer Protection on Plant Protection Products (download)[12]

Entry of the IARC under WHO into glyphosate[2]


Skin whitening - What happens and why at all?

What is skin whitening and why do it?

Skin whitening is a practice in which the production of melanin is inhibited, making the skin brighter. It is particularly popular in Africa and Asia, where a fair skin is culturally regarded and brings certain social benefits. Mainly a worldview aspect in Asia, the people in Africa hope for higher chances of marriage and work. [1] But it is also practiced in many other countries. Here are mainly medically treated pigmentary disorders and diseases. In addition, the complexion is cosmetically balanced. [2]

What is used and how does it work?

In Japan, a long time was looking for possible substances, where mainly kojic acid and rucinol are used. The only whitening substances approved in Germany are mixtures of hydroquinone, tretinoin and hydrocortisone. They mainly work by influencing melanin synthesis in the body. [3] Melanin is a pigment in the body that gives the dark color of the skin. Likewise, melanin protects us from UV radiation. Side effects of these bleaches are:

  • Hydroquinone: classified as a carcinogen under REACH (ECHA Evaluation - Item 7.9.5)[4]

  • Tretinoin: Causally causes skin irritation

  • Hydrocortisone: is a body's own stress hormone, which is involved in the metabolism. Prolonged exposure may cause skin thinning, acne or dermatitis (primarily around the mouth).

In some parts of Asia and Africa, one often resorts to more dangerous means, e.g. Mercury. [5]

Are there alternatives ?

As alternatives come substances in question, which act as a light tyrosinase inhibitor. These prevent tyrosine from producing melanin. They are found in synthetic as well as natural sources. e.g. Kojic acid, vitamin C, ortho-vanillin or various ingredients of licorice root extract. [6] In addition, alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids can be used to remove old, darker skin layers (the so-called fruit acid peeling). [7]

Sources and information to read:

The "skin whitening" in Africa[1][5]

ECHA evaluation of hydroquinone[4]


UV-Filter in Kosmetika – Was machen sie und sind sie gefährlich ?

What is UV radiation?

UV radiation is a certain wavelength range of light that is more energetic than visible light. It occurs naturally, but is also artificially produced. It covers the ranges around 380-315nm (near UV / UV-A), 315-280nm (middle UV / UV-B) and 280-200nm (far UV / UV-C).[1]

Fig. 1 The sun, based on fusion, produces UV rays of all kinds.

Where does UV radiation occur?

UV radiation naturally occurs in the form of solar radiation. Here, the sun emits radiation from UV-A to UV-C (as well as some other wavelengths of the spectrum). Much of this radiation is absorbed by the ozone layer, which virtually eliminates UV-C, UV-A and UV-B. One can also generate UV radiation, e.g. by mercury or quartz lamps.[2]

What does UV radiation do and do we use it?

UV radiation has different uses, and different properties depending on the wavelength. However, they share some properties with each other. Thus, UV rays are invisible to the human eye, they can cleave chemical bonds and can denature proteins. We use UV radiation in a variety of things, such as as a harmless party light (black light), for the disinfection of surfaces, in analytics (spectroscopy) or in the solarium. UV-A radiation causes many light-related skin damage, UV-B radiation causes skin cancer. [3]

What are UV filters?

A UV filter is a substance that makes UV rays harmless infrared rays (heat radiation). There are filters for the UV-A, UV-B and UV-C range, as well as broadband filters covering several parts of these areas. These filters operate on the principle of Stokes shift. In this case, the absorption of UV radiation, a part of the energy is stored, and the radiation itself emits weaker (returned).[4]

Which UV filters are used in cosmetics and why?

UV filters are used as sunscreen, in lotion and creams. They protect cells and DNA from damage by UV-A and UV-B. Sunscreen products come in various "starches", which are classified under the sun protection factor (SPF). These range from an SPF of 6 (low) to an SPF of 50+ (very high). Such sunscreens provide organic substances, e.g. Benzophenone, benzylidene camphor or homosalate. Organic UV filters are usually derivatives of camphor, salicylic acid or cinnamic acid. Inorganic UV filters are e.g. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) or zinc oxide (ZnO). Nanoparticles are also used by these UV filters. [5]

Are UV filters in cosmetics dangerous?

UV filters can cause allergic and photoallergic reactions. Some UV filters can affect sex hormones, but this effect is clear in fish (feminization of fish), but does not seem to be relevant in humans. However, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor could not be excluded, this substance should be avoided. Also inorganic substances, like TiO2 and ZnO are not safe. TiO2 and ZnO are carcinogenic when inhaled (but sunscreen is only inhaled in powders and sprays), nanoparticles of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide have cytotoxic properties (ie they can damage cells and tissues), and they can form radicals by UV radiation. which can degrade organic material. Nanoparticles of these metal oxides can also be detected with lymphocyte transformation tests by some users. Zinc oxide penetrates only into the epidermis, titanium dioxide into the outermost layer of the skin (Latin stratum corneum).[6][7]

Are there alternatives to conventional UV filters?

Unfortunately, no. There is already research on alternatives and some promising candidates have been found. So far, however, there has been no clear 'Ok' for these substances. Substances such as; Avobenzone, amiloxate, bemotrizinol or octyltriazone have not yet been classified as toxic, but REACH and the responsible health authorities are awaiting evaluation. So far: From some substances such. 4-Methylbenylidene camphor should be kept away. People who are allergic to some organic UV filters should use TiO2 and ZnO (whitish products usually contain "normal" TiO2 and ZnO, while transparent ones often contain nanoparticles, which depends on you). As a basic idea, one should take the comparison of the risks, so the chance of skin cancer when not using sunscreen is higher than the risk of using it. For the sake of the environment, you should use solar protection a little more sparingly, and if you want to do without it, you have to protect yourself from the sun, for example, from the sun. through long clothes.[8]

Sources and information to read:

Scientific article on zinc oxide nanoparticles[6][7]

Scientific article on titanium dioxide nanoparticles [6][7]


Ferments in cosmetics - Why are fermented compounds in cosmetics?

What is fermentation? 

Fermentation is the biological or enzymatic transformation of organic substances into acids, gases or alcohol. This is achieved by bacterial, fungal or other cell cultures, but also by the addition of enzymes. The word fermentation, comes from the Latin „fermentum“ and means fermentation[1].

What happens during fermentation?

Fermentation consists of high energy organic starting materials, e.g. Glucose or protein, without oxygen, new, smaller molecules formed. This process is also called anerobic fermentation. Anerobic fermentation is in itself the only definition of fermentation. Hereby, for example, sugar is converted by yeast bacteria to carbon dioxide and ethanol. There are also types of fermentation with oxygen, the aerobic fermentation. This form of fermentation is e.g. used to make acetic acid, but by definition is not directly fermented[2].

Where is fermentation used?

Fermentation wird in der Lebens-, und Genussmittelindustrie eingesetzt, und dient hierbei hauptsächlich zur Haltbarmachung, der Entwicklung von Aromastoffen, der Herstellung von Milchprodukten und der Erzeugung von alkoholischen Getränken. In der Technik

hat die Fermentation ebenfalls große Bedeutung, und dient zur Herstellung von Bioethanol, Aminosäuren, organischen Säuren z.B. Essig-, Citronen-, und Milchsäure, Enzymen, Pharmaka und Polymeren[3].

Why are fermented compounds used in cosmetics?

In der Kosmetik finden Fermente seit längerem als durch Gärung hergestellte Inhaltsstoffe wie Hyaluronsäure, Alkohol, oder Xanthan Anwendung. Seit neuerem werden aber auch andere Inhaltsstoffe fermentiert. Dieser Trend kommt aus Korea und verspricht dort sehr viel. Pflanzenrohstoffe werden mittel Mikroorganismen so angepasst, wie benötigt. So können nichtvorhandene, jedoch gewüschte, Stoffe hergestellt werden. Ebenfalls kann die Konzentration von anderen, bereits vorhandenen Stoffen, wie Antioxidantien, erhöht werden[4].



Water in cosmetics - the basic building block of life

What is water?

Water is a chemical with the formula H2O, es besteht aus den Elementen Sauerstoff(O) und Wasserstoff(H). Es macht rund 71% der Oberfläche der Erde in Form von Ozeanen und Meeren aus. Davon sind 97% Salzwasser, und nur rund 3% Süßwasser. Es ist die Grundlage alles Lebens und in ihm soll auch das erste mehrzellige Leben begonnen haben[1].

What are the properties of the water?

Water is the only substance that occurs in appreciable quantities in all three aggregate states, solid, liquid and gaseous. Colloquially, the solid variant is called ice, the liquid variant water and the gaseous variant water vapor. As a liquid, it has usually dissolved salts, gases and organic substances. Due to the different electronegativity of the elements themselves, a partial charge arises in the molecule, i. the components of water, oxygen and hydrogen are partially charged. Thus, the oxygen is partially negative, and the hydrogen is partially positively charged.However, these are not direct charges, but only side effects of the position of the electrons. For this reason, hydrogen molecules can form under the water molecules by the differently charged particles associate with each other. This property is also due to the density anomaly of the water. If a substance is heated, it expands, but not with the water, here it is exactly the opposite. Bismuth, silicon and certain alloys share this property with the water. This anomaly is also the reason why ice floats on water, although it should go down. In addition, water has a very high boiling point of 100 ° C for its low molar mass. Similar substances such as hydrogen sulfide (SH2) or

hydrogen selenide (SeH2) have boiling points of -61 to -41 ° C. Water is also very permeable to light, which allows the life of plants and algae under the water, in seas and the like. However, water absorbs certain wavelengths of light, e.g. the Red. As a result, the red light from a few meters depth no longer penetrates through the water, but blue already. This creates the blue color of the water. It also absorbs UV rays, so good that even after a few centimeters, everything is absorbed by UV rays. It acts amphoteric, i. It is equally acid and base, and is a good polar solvent. It has a pH of 7 but may be reduced by e.g. Carbon dioxide-containing air can be adjusted to a pH of 4.5 to 5.5. Normal tap water has dissolved certain amounts of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, as well as strontium and barium, which are important to health but are also interfering with other applications. Water has the highest specific heat capacity at room temperature, i. Water can save a lot of energy. Likewise, it has the highest surface tension after mercury,

so that, for example, paper clips and even coins can lie on the water without going under. For the same reason, water runners can slide on the water[2].

Why is water the basic building block of all life?

Several million years ago, when the earth was still very hot, consisting primarily of volcanoes, and the atmosphere of toxic hydrogen sulfide, cyanobacteria are thought to be made up of organic matter and the hydrogen sulphide of water. So the atmosphere was gradually purified, and water created. In this water everything began with multicellular life. We humans are 70% water, and a lack of it leads to serious consequences. Excessive intake of water, however, also leads to serious consequences. Around two-thirds of the world's population - around 4 billion people - do not have enough water at least once a month. 1.8 to 2.9 billion suffer from severe water shortages for 4 to 6 months, and around 0.5 billion people year-round.

What are the consequences of too little or too much water?

Ingestion of too little water is called dehydration, and ingestion of too much water causes hyperhydration. There are three categories:

- Isoton: In this case, the proportion of water and salt content change to equal amounts. Both liquids and important salts are lost. This comes e.g. In case of vomiting.

- Hyperton: This loses more water than salt, which results in a higher salt concentration, and thereby dehydration begins. This happens during sweating, hard work or fever without adequate hydration.

- Hypotonic: In this case, you lose more salt than water, which body fluids, such as the blood, the sufficient amount of ions is missing, so important functions that work on the ion exchange no longer run properly or even suspended.

Abb. 1 Wasser als Stilmittel in der Architektur

What is water used for except for drinking?

Water is used everywhere. Whether in food technology, energy production, science, the construction industry, architecture, art, etc. It is used in almost all areas at least in part. It is used as a starting material as well as all food, serves as a means of energy conversion in e.g. Nuclear power, coal or hydropower plants, it is an important solvent and essential agent in all scientific fields, it is used as a solvent in construction with concrete or for cleaning, it is used as a decorative element, and is a symbol of life in many paintings and religious works of art.

What does whater do in cosmetics ?

In der Kosmetik dient Wasser als Lösemittel, und wird zur hautverträglichen Verdünnung von Tensiden und anderen Wirk- und Hilfsstoffen genutzt. Es dient zudem als Feuchtigkeitsspender für die Haut, sofern es richtig angewendet wird[6].



Artikel zu Wasser in Kosmetik[6]

Terpenes - What ar they and what do they do in cosmetics ?

What are terpenes?

Terpenes belong to a large group of chemical compounds. There are around 8,000 terpenes and up to 30,000 substance related. They are considered lipids and occur mainly in plants[1].

What are terpenes chemically?

Fig. 1 The isoprene

Terpenes are all derived from isoprene. This was named after the resin resin turpentine. One can not make out a clear group of substances from the terpenes, as there are too many variations. They occur as hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones, glycosides, alcohols, ethers or carboxylic acids. They are found mainly in plants, mostly in their oils, resins, flowers, leaves and barks. Many of them are antimicrobial, and insect pheromones[2].

One differentiates into the following subgroups:

- Monoterpenes: There are about 900 known pieces. They have high bioavailability and anti-carcinogenic effects. They are part of essential oils. e.g. Geraniol, citral, limonene, menthol

- Sesquiterpenes: There are more than 3000 known. They consist of three isoprene units, all derived from farnesyl pyrophosphate. They are found in vegetable oils of e.g. Hops, roses, chamomile. e.g. Humulan, farnesol, bisabolol

- Diterpenes: There are about 5000 pieces known. They each consist of two isoprene units. They are found in some plants. A representative group put the A vitamins such as retinal and retinol there.

- Sesterpene: There are about 150 known pieces. They occur in lower mushrooms, as well as sponges. They have as a basic structure the furan, and special antibacterial effects.

Fig. 3 The squalane molecule

- Triterpene: There are about 1700 pieces. They each consist of 6 Isoprene units, and are all derived from squalane. They come in e.g. Fern, birch and irises in front. Their cyclic variants have Hopan or Steran skeletons.

- Tetraterpenes: Consist of eight isoprene units, and have as subgroup all carotenoids.

- Polyterpenes: Consist of more than eight isoprene units. They are found in natural rubber, e.g. In the rubber tree, or in the latex of certain plants[3].

What are the uses of terpenes?

Terpenes are part of many vegetable oils, and make up a large part of the essential oils. They have very unique smells and tastes, and are therefore used in perfumes and cosmetics. Most recently, they appear promising in the pharmaceutical industry. For example, they are to be used in cancer research, but they have not been thoroughly explored enough. They are also used as environmentally friendly insecticides[4].

What do terpenes in cosmetics do and are they harmful?

Terpenes are found in natural cosmetics, but also in conventional cosmetics. They make up the majority of essential oils, which is why they are contained in many, which is offset with fragrances. They are also contained in herbal extracts and oils. Many of them have good properties for cosmetics, but some are so-called allergens. Citral, limonene, geraniol, etc. May cause skin irritation, redness and itching in sensitive people. Even with people who had no previous symptoms, allergies can train against such substances. So you should make a dermatologist in advance allergy tests in order to exclude early substances for topical application. Due to the sensitizing properties, however, caution should be taken as far as possible[5].



Scientific book about terpenes[2][3][4][5]

Squalane in cosmetics - what does it do and why is it used ?

What is squalane?

Squalane is an oily, odorless and tasteless liquid found in fish (primarily sharks) and plants. It is used in cosmetics and in industry, as well as in chemical analyzes[1].

What is squalane chemically?

Fig. 1 The squalane molecule

Squalane is a so-called triterpene, which consists of three terpene units. Terpenes generally have their own odors, and are found in resins and essential oils. They have an antimicrobial effect and are used as environmentally friendly insecticides. In addition, they have some pharmacologically interesting properties, such as the terpenes contained in hemp are used against cancer[2].

Where does squalane come from?

Squalane was obtained in very significant quantities from sharks, but they are now obtained from squalene. Squalene is found in many plants, and

Fig. 2 The squalene molecule

be hydrogenated to squalane. Squalene and squalane come in e.g. Wheat germ oil, avocado oil or olive oil. Squalane, which is obtained from plants is also referred to as phytosqualan to illustrate its origin[3].

Where is squalane used and why?

Squalan kommt in Kosmetika und Pharmaka zum Einsatz. Hier wird es Beispielsweise in Conditioners, Cremes und Salben benutzt, was auf seinen besonders guten Spreitwert zurückzuführen ist. Es zieht selbst nicht wirklich in die Haut ein, hat aber einen positiven Einfluss auf das Einzierverhalten von anderen Substanzen in einer Emulsion. Zudem ist es stabil gegenüber Oxidation, weshalb es in Sonnencremes benutzt wird[4].



INCI entry on squalane[2][3]

Article on squalane in cosmetics[4]

Waxes in cosmetics - What are their uses ?

What are waxes?

Waxes are organic substances that have some specific mechanical and physical properties. They are used in sports, food technology, handicrafts and cosmetics[1].


What are waxes chemically, and what are their properties?

Wachse sind organische, also Kohlenstoffhaltige, unpolare Verbindungen, welche hauptsächlich aus Estern, Alkoholen und Amiden bestehen. Sie haben keine genau bestimmte Stoffgruppe, da viele verschiedene Mischungen und Verbindungen alle nötigen Eigenschaften aufweisen als Wachs zu zählen. Hierdurch kann keine Stoffgruppe, sondern nur einige mechanische und pysikalische Eigenschaften definiert werden. So, dass sie z.B. ab 20°C knetbar sind, ab 40°C schmelzen und eine leicht viskose Flüssigkeit bilden, bei leichtem Druck polierbar sind, eine grobe bis feine Kristallstruktur aufweisen und farblich durchsichtig oder opak sind. Es gibt ebenfalls natürliche und synthetische Wachse. Die Natürlichen werden in fossil und nicht fossil, sowie pflanzlich und tierisch, eingeteilt. Fossile Wachse wären z.B. Paraffine, tierische Wachse z.B. China und Bienenwachs, und pflanzliche Wachse z.B. Carnauba und Candelilawachs[2].

Where are they used?

Waxes are used in crafting candles, polishes and making (wax) figures. In food technology, they are natural release agents and serve as a coating for e.g. Chewing gum, but also for sealing e.g. Wine to keep this for a long time. In sports, for example, they are used during skiing to improve the gliding ability on snow[3].

Why are they used in cosmetics?

Waxes are used in cosmetics as bodying agents, e.g. Beeswax for firm, but somewhat softer wanted cosmetics, or candelila and carnauba for stronger products. They protect the skin from moisture loss, and form light films which, with hair, provide a light shine and a certain suppleness[4].



INCI Description of waxes[2][4]

Fruit acid cures - what do they do?

What are fruit acids?

The word fruit acid is a collective term for fruit occurring acids, such as e.g. Malic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, lactic acid, salicylic acid and tartaric acid[1].

What are fruit acids chemical?

The fruit acids used for cosmetics and medicine are so-called α-Hydroxycarbonsäurennenn, dicarboxylic acids or the β-hydroxycarboxylic acid salicylic acid. The α means here that a hydroxy group (-OH) sits on the same carbon as the carboxy group (-COOH), the β that it sits on the second carbon neighbors of the carboxy group. Heirbei can also be distinguished from mono-, di- and tricarboxylic acids, it is e.g. Glycolic acid is a monocarboxylic acid, tartaric acid is a dicarboxylic acid and citric acid is a tricarboxylic acid. The difference here is the number of carboxy groups. In addition, there are aromatic carboxylic acids such as salicylic acid or mandelic acid. Since they are all acids they have a low pH, similar to our skin, but they are not rudimentary as strong as other acids, e.g. Mineral, sulfuric or nitric acid. Salts of fruit acids are used as an acidifier, citric acid also as a preservative [2].

How does a fruit acid treatment work?

In a conventional exfoliation, the top skin layer is rubbed off by mechanical means, e.g. By sugar or salt crystals. In a fruit acid peeling, a mixture of different fruit acids, with a low pH, is applied to the skin, where it is rapidly absorbed into the skin. The fruit acids then denature the peptides in the outermost layer of skin, whereupon the middle skin layer separates them, and even more blood is supplied. The removal of the uppermost layer of skin smoothes the skin, and the increased circulation of the middle skin layer contributes to the rapid regeneration of the skin. Used properly, symptoms such as acne, blackheads, wrinkles and pigmentation can be effectively resolved[3].

What do you have to consider?

You have to prepare properly for a fruit acid peel, and also pay attention afterwards to some things, so that it works properly, and no side effects occur. On the one hand, you should prepare the skin a few days before with lower concentrations of fruit acids to the low pH of the fruit acid cure. Also, you should pay attention afterwards, not to apply too greasy creams, and definitely to use a UV protection. At what intervals and how many sessions a cure is carried out is quite individual, and therefore different from person to person, so you should seek advice from experts[4].



Scientific Article on Alpha Hydroxycarboxylic Acids[3][4]