Fruit acid cures - what do they do?

What are fruit acids?

The word fruit acid is a collective term for fruit occurring acids, such as e.g. Malic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, lactic acid, salicylic acid and tartaric acid[1].

What are fruit acids chemical?

The fruit acids used for cosmetics and medicine are so-called α-Hydroxycarbonsäurennenn, dicarboxylic acids or the β-hydroxycarboxylic acid salicylic acid. The α means here that a hydroxy group (-OH) sits on the same carbon as the carboxy group (-COOH), the β that it sits on the second carbon neighbors of the carboxy group. Heirbei can also be distinguished from mono-, di- and tricarboxylic acids, it is e.g. Glycolic acid is a monocarboxylic acid, tartaric acid is a dicarboxylic acid and citric acid is a tricarboxylic acid. The difference here is the number of carboxy groups. In addition, there are aromatic carboxylic acids such as salicylic acid or mandelic acid. Since they are all acids they have a low pH, similar to our skin, but they are not rudimentary as strong as other acids, e.g. Mineral, sulfuric or nitric acid. Salts of fruit acids are used as an acidifier, citric acid also as a preservative [2].

How does a fruit acid treatment work?

In a conventional exfoliation, the top skin layer is rubbed off by mechanical means, e.g. By sugar or salt crystals. In a fruit acid peeling, a mixture of different fruit acids, with a low pH, is applied to the skin, where it is rapidly absorbed into the skin. The fruit acids then denature the peptides in the outermost layer of skin, whereupon the middle skin layer separates them, and even more blood is supplied. The removal of the uppermost layer of skin smoothes the skin, and the increased circulation of the middle skin layer contributes to the rapid regeneration of the skin. Used properly, symptoms such as acne, blackheads, wrinkles and pigmentation can be effectively resolved[3].

What do you have to consider?

You have to prepare properly for a fruit acid peel, and also pay attention afterwards to some things, so that it works properly, and no side effects occur. On the one hand, you should prepare the skin a few days before with lower concentrations of fruit acids to the low pH of the fruit acid cure. Also, you should pay attention afterwards, not to apply too greasy creams, and definitely to use a UV protection. At what intervals and how many sessions a cure is carried out is quite individual, and therefore different from person to person, so you should seek advice from experts[4].



Scientific Article on Alpha Hydroxycarboxylic Acids[3][4]

Glucocorticoids - What are they and why are they in cosmetics?

What are glucocorticoids?

Glucocorticoids (GCC for short) are steroid hormones that our body produces in the adrenal cortex. It fulfills many important purposes in the body and is found too often in medicines and partly in cosmetics[1].

Fig. 1 The cortisone

What are GCC chemically and what do they do in the body?

GCC are steroid hormones, ie analogues to hormones. The "Gluco" in their name is due to their use in glucose metabolism. In doing so, they contribute to the breakdown of protein (proteins) into glucose, thus they are protein-splitting hormones. They affect the metabolism, water and electrolyte balance, the cardiovascular and the nervous system, they also have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive, i. Suppressing immune system reaction. Cortisone and cortisol are among the most important of these GCCs, with cortisone being the inactive form of cortisol[2].

Why are they in medicines and cosmetics?

GCC have strong anti-inflammatory properties, which is why they are used in ointments and tablets. For example, Cortisone used against swelling, inflammation and diseases such as hives[3].

Are there any side effects?

With short, personally adjusted quantity prescription no side effects are to be expected. Short overdose can cause dizziness, headache, depression or psychosis. Prolonged use of overdoses can lead to more severe symptoms such as osteoporosis, increased blood sugar levels, or even impotence. After a longer intake, one should not suddenly stop taking the preparation, because the body has put down its own production or even turned it off completely and needs a certain amount of time to normalize it again[4].

Are there any alternatives for the topical application?

For products with topical application, so creams, ointments and the same, there are some alternatives for the treatment of swelling, redness, irritation and itching, so the body's natural defense functions. For example, Extracts of marigold, sea buckthorn, aloe vera and propolis. There is also the Bromelain, an extract of enzymes from the pineapple, which, similar to cortisone, decomposes proteins[5].

1. Marigold: The Marigold is used both internally and externally against ulcers and injuries. Burns, wounds, redness, irritation and more are quickly cured by marigold extracts.

This is mainly due to high levels of flavonoids, up to 0.9%, various saponoids, essential oils from sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, coumarins and polysaccharides[6].

2. Seabuckthorn: Sea buckthorn looks great internally and externally. It boosts the regeneration and healing of wounds, and its anti-inflammatory properties make itching and redness go away quickly. However, the oil and pulp are very expensive as the fruits grow on bushes densely covered with thorns.

Diese Effekte sind den Inhaltsstoffen zu danken, so mit unter hohen Mengen an Vitamin C, B, E und A. Ebenfalls enthält es viele Mineralstoffe wie Eisen, Magnesium und Kalium[7].

3. Aloe Vera: Everyone has heard of the wonder drug Aloe Vera, the desert lily. It heals wounds, insect bites and sunburns through its antibacterial and cooling effect. It also protects the body from parasites, fungi and bacteria from within.

The reason is not surprising, with over 200 active ingredients such as vitamins, enzymes, minerals and amino acids, Aloe Vera is prepared for anything[8].

4. Propolis: Not for the vegan lifestyle, but a true marvel of wildlife. Propolis is a bee product and can be freely translated to "out of town" or "for the city". Bees use it to keep fungi, bacteria and viruses out of their sticks. It has anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal effects and is therefore a miracle cure for wound healing.

For this, the bees work rather hard though. They collect resins from trees, mostly conifers, store them in pollen sacs, and mix it with wax and pollen [9].[9].

5. Bromelain: Bromelain findet sich in der Ananas, und wird häufig gegen starke Schwellungen eingesetzt. Es ist ein Enzymgemisch, welches es vermag Eiweiß zu spalten (ähnlich dem Cortisol). Durch diese Eigenschaft kann es bei Entzündungen eingesetzt werden, sowohl als auch durch seine Beeinflussung auf die Blutgerinnung, Schwellungen und Ödeme nach Operationen vermindern. Manche Menschen haben allergische Reaktionen auf Bromelain, und sollten es deshalb nicht zu sich nehmen[10].



Professional article on cortisone in medicine[2][4]

Article about marigold[6]

Article about sea buckthorn[7]

Article about aleo vera[8]

Article about propolis[9]

Article about bromelain[10]

Retinoids - What are they and what are they doing in cosmetics?

What are retinoids?

Retinoids are substances related to retinol, which itself is a derivative of A vitamins. They are found in animal and plant products, and are essential for humans[1].

What is Retinol, and what is its job?

Fig. 1 The structure of retinol

Retinol is a so-called β-ionone, and belongs to the A vitamins. These are responsible for the growth and functioning of the skin, mucous membranes, blood cells and bone tissue, as well as metabolism, vision and the biosynthesis of testosterone and estrogen [2].

What are retinoids chemically?

The retinoids differ in three generations:

1. The non-aromatic e.g. Tretinoin - the retinoic acid

- This occurs in acne treatment. And is also used as an adjunct to the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML - blood cancer). However, it can lead to an increase in intracranial pressure and pulmonary edema. These side effects have a lethality of 10%, with the cure rate of AML being 80%.

2. The mono-aromatic e.g. acitretin

- This is used in the treatment of psoriasis and cornification

3. poly-aromatic e.g. adapalene

-This is used as an acne remedy and can cause redness, irritation and dehydration, but is better tolerated than tretinoin

All are descendants of the retinol and thus of the β-ionone. Jonons are already noticeable to humans from a very low concentration, and usually have floral odors. They are especially in berries, tea and tobacco before.

What do retinoids do in cosmetics?

In cosmetics, retinoids are often used against wrinkles, and they actually help after some studies [4]. However, it is quite common that the skin can be irritated and reddened when first used, this effect should even be expected. However, if the side effects do not disappear after 4-5 days, you should stop using the product [5].



Scientific report on the effect of retinoids on skin aging[4]

What is a perm - how does it come about?

What is a perm?

A perm is the chemical transformation process to make curls or waves in straight hair, or on the contrary, to smooth curly and wavy hair. The current method was invented around 1906.[1].

What happens to the hair?

The thioglycolic acid Fig. 1

Externally, the hair itself consists of many very thin threads of keratin, which in itself, three long chains of amino acids, swirls in a triple helix. These are held within the chains by certain forces and bonds in their form. These compounds and the resulting forms are genetically determined. The two major compounds that hold these forms are hydrogen bonds and disulfide bonds, where the hydrogen bonds are pure interactions but not chemical bonds. The so-called hair dryer wave is achieved only with water, a real perm over chemical methods. In the hair dryer wave, the water breaks the hydrogen bonds, thus loosening up the hair. The heat of the hair dryer now evaporates the water, and the hair takes on the styled shape. By an internal tension of the hair, they recede very quickly, by combing, blow-drying and washing, into their original form. In a perm, the hair proteins, so the keratin, "denatured". Denaturing means a protein that has solid forms to work, to deform. This is done by the influence of chemicals or by heat, so when cooking an egg, the proteins are denatured in the egg, which is why this hard. In the hair, the disulfide bridges of keratin, more specifically the amino acid cysteine ​​as part of keratin, are split. This is done by thioglycolic acid and its salts. Hair loosening preparations usually include a pH stabilizer, e.g. Ammoniumhydrogencarbonat, which sets a pH of 7.5-9, ie an acidic pH, some emulsifiers and surfactants, and the thioglycolic acid. Subsequently, with an oxidizing agent, usually hydrogen peroxide, the disulfide bridges are restored, and thus brought back strength in the hair [2].

How does the perm process work?

First, with a preparation containing a pH stabilizer, some emulsifiers and surfactants, and cysteine ​​(thioglycolic acid only rarely, as cysteine ​​is gentler), the hair is loosened up. This process lasts between 10 and 30 minutes, but can be cured by heat, e.g. be accelerated by a heat hood. Subsequently, the hair is thoroughly washed to get rid of cysteine ​​residues. After washing, the hair is brought into shape, and with an oxidizing agent, here usually hydrogen peroxide given strength again. In contrast to the hair dryer wave, a permanent wave lasts a much longer time, but will also return by an internal tension in the hair, and by frequent washing, blow drying and combing the original shape of the hair[3].

Are there any problems or consequences due to perms?

Yes there is. The thioglycolic acid namely decomposes at elevated temperatures to hydrogen sulphide (SH2) and sulfur oxides (S2O, SO2, SO3), which are highly toxic, also produces ammonia, which can lead as a gas in the long term to severe lungs and eye damage. If you do not fit here with the dryer hood, this can have serious consequences. In addition, the hydrogen peroxide attacks the hair pigment, and is therefore used for bleaching. The permanent wave itself does not cause hair damage (which is not wanted, such as destroying the melanin when bleaching) [4].



Article on the return of perm[3]

Articles on perm - types, duration, mode of action [2]

Enzymes - What are they and what are their tasks in the body?

What are enzymes?

Enzymes are biological giant molecules that catalyze chemical reactions in the body. This makes them essential for the organism, as important reactions would otherwise not or too slowly[1].

What are your tasks in the body?

Abb. 1 Das Bändermodell der Triosephosphatisomerase, welches ein wichtiger Teil des Einfach- und Traubenzuckerabbaus ist.

Enzymes catalyze chemical reactions in the body. They make sure that reactions run faster, or run at all. This happens selectively, and different enzymes have different roles. They also have 6 classes:

-EC1: Oxireductases - which reduce molecules

-EC2: transferases - which can replace and exchange functional groups

-EC3: Hydrolases - Which split molecules by adding water onto them

-EC4: Lyases - Which break apart or synthesize complex molecules

-EC5: Isomersen - Which isomerize molecules

-EC6: Ligases - Which catalyze addition reactions[2]

What are enzymes chemically?

Enzymes are so-called macromolecules, ie very large molecules. They are long chains of amino acids, even longer than peptides with a chain length of upwards of 100 amino acids. There are many different ones, with different tasks. They may exist as monomers, ie a polypeptide chain or a plurality of polypeptide chains, a so-called oligomer. Chemically, they are biocatalysts, where a catalyst is a substance which reduces the energy required for a reaction (also called a material transformation). They function by binding substances to their active center and doing their respective work there. You can join others to to regenerate and regulate each other. In addition, there are the pure enzymes, which consist only of enzymes, and the holoenzymes, which consist of an enzyme and a cofactor, e.g. consist of a metal ion [3].

Fig. 2 An energy diagram to illustrate the mode of action of a catalyst (reduced energy requirement red)

What are their applications?

In addition to the obvious biological significance, enzymes are also expressed in e.g. Detergents used to dissolve fats and the like (splitting by lipases), in cheese production, and in medicine[4].

What do enzymes do in cosmetics?

In cosmetics, enzymes are used as an antidote to aging. They help with this, e.g. pad the skin by stimulating collagen synthesis[5].



Report on skin aging effects of enzymes[5]