Ferments in cosmetics - Why are fermented compounds in cosmetics?

What is fermentation? 

Fermentation is the biological or enzymatic transformation of organic substances into acids, gases or alcohol. This is achieved by bacterial, fungal or other cell cultures, but also by the addition of enzymes. The word fermentation, comes from the Latin „fermentum“ and means fermentation[1].

What happens during fermentation?

Fermentation consists of high energy organic starting materials, e.g. Glucose or protein, without oxygen, new, smaller molecules formed. This process is also called anerobic fermentation. Anerobic fermentation is in itself the only definition of fermentation. Hereby, for example, sugar is converted by yeast bacteria to carbon dioxide and ethanol. There are also types of fermentation with oxygen, the aerobic fermentation. This form of fermentation is e.g. used to make acetic acid, but by definition is not directly fermented[2].

Where is fermentation used?

Fermentation wird in der Lebens-, und Genussmittelindustrie eingesetzt, und dient hierbei hauptsächlich zur Haltbarmachung, der Entwicklung von Aromastoffen, der Herstellung von Milchprodukten und der Erzeugung von alkoholischen Getränken. In der Technik

hat die Fermentation ebenfalls große Bedeutung, und dient zur Herstellung von Bioethanol, Aminosäuren, organischen Säuren z.B. Essig-, Citronen-, und Milchsäure, Enzymen, Pharmaka und Polymeren[3].

Why are fermented compounds used in cosmetics?

In der Kosmetik finden Fermente seit längerem als durch Gärung hergestellte Inhaltsstoffe wie Hyaluronsäure, Alkohol, oder Xanthan Anwendung. Seit neuerem werden aber auch andere Inhaltsstoffe fermentiert. Dieser Trend kommt aus Korea und verspricht dort sehr viel. Pflanzenrohstoffe werden mittel Mikroorganismen so angepasst, wie benötigt. So können nichtvorhandene, jedoch gewüschte, Stoffe hergestellt werden. Ebenfalls kann die Konzentration von anderen, bereits vorhandenen Stoffen, wie Antioxidantien, erhöht werden[4].



Water in cosmetics - the basic building block of life

What is water?

Water is a chemical with the formula H2O, es besteht aus den Elementen Sauerstoff(O) und Wasserstoff(H). Es macht rund 71% der Oberfläche der Erde in Form von Ozeanen und Meeren aus. Davon sind 97% Salzwasser, und nur rund 3% Süßwasser. Es ist die Grundlage alles Lebens und in ihm soll auch das erste mehrzellige Leben begonnen haben[1].

What are the properties of the water?

Water is the only substance that occurs in appreciable quantities in all three aggregate states, solid, liquid and gaseous. Colloquially, the solid variant is called ice, the liquid variant water and the gaseous variant water vapor. As a liquid, it has usually dissolved salts, gases and organic substances. Due to the different electronegativity of the elements themselves, a partial charge arises in the molecule, i. the components of water, oxygen and hydrogen are partially charged. Thus, the oxygen is partially negative, and the hydrogen is partially positively charged.However, these are not direct charges, but only side effects of the position of the electrons. For this reason, hydrogen molecules can form under the water molecules by the differently charged particles associate with each other. This property is also due to the density anomaly of the water. If a substance is heated, it expands, but not with the water, here it is exactly the opposite. Bismuth, silicon and certain alloys share this property with the water. This anomaly is also the reason why ice floats on water, although it should go down. In addition, water has a very high boiling point of 100 ° C for its low molar mass. Similar substances such as hydrogen sulfide (SH2) or

hydrogen selenide (SeH2) have boiling points of -61 to -41 ° C. Water is also very permeable to light, which allows the life of plants and algae under the water, in seas and the like. However, water absorbs certain wavelengths of light, e.g. the Red. As a result, the red light from a few meters depth no longer penetrates through the water, but blue already. This creates the blue color of the water. It also absorbs UV rays, so good that even after a few centimeters, everything is absorbed by UV rays. It acts amphoteric, i. It is equally acid and base, and is a good polar solvent. It has a pH of 7 but may be reduced by e.g. Carbon dioxide-containing air can be adjusted to a pH of 4.5 to 5.5. Normal tap water has dissolved certain amounts of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, as well as strontium and barium, which are important to health but are also interfering with other applications. Water has the highest specific heat capacity at room temperature, i. Water can save a lot of energy. Likewise, it has the highest surface tension after mercury,

so that, for example, paper clips and even coins can lie on the water without going under. For the same reason, water runners can slide on the water[2].

Why is water the basic building block of all life?

Several million years ago, when the earth was still very hot, consisting primarily of volcanoes, and the atmosphere of toxic hydrogen sulfide, cyanobacteria are thought to be made up of organic matter and the hydrogen sulphide of water. So the atmosphere was gradually purified, and water created. In this water everything began with multicellular life. We humans are 70% water, and a lack of it leads to serious consequences. Excessive intake of water, however, also leads to serious consequences. Around two-thirds of the world's population - around 4 billion people - do not have enough water at least once a month. 1.8 to 2.9 billion suffer from severe water shortages for 4 to 6 months, and around 0.5 billion people year-round.

What are the consequences of too little or too much water?

Ingestion of too little water is called dehydration, and ingestion of too much water causes hyperhydration. There are three categories:

- Isoton: In this case, the proportion of water and salt content change to equal amounts. Both liquids and important salts are lost. This comes e.g. In case of vomiting.

- Hyperton: This loses more water than salt, which results in a higher salt concentration, and thereby dehydration begins. This happens during sweating, hard work or fever without adequate hydration.

- Hypotonic: In this case, you lose more salt than water, which body fluids, such as the blood, the sufficient amount of ions is missing, so important functions that work on the ion exchange no longer run properly or even suspended.

Abb. 1 Wasser als Stilmittel in der Architektur

What is water used for except for drinking?

Water is used everywhere. Whether in food technology, energy production, science, the construction industry, architecture, art, etc. It is used in almost all areas at least in part. It is used as a starting material as well as all food, serves as a means of energy conversion in e.g. Nuclear power, coal or hydropower plants, it is an important solvent and essential agent in all scientific fields, it is used as a solvent in construction with concrete or for cleaning, it is used as a decorative element, and is a symbol of life in many paintings and religious works of art.

What does whater do in cosmetics ?

In der Kosmetik dient Wasser als Lösemittel, und wird zur hautverträglichen Verdünnung von Tensiden und anderen Wirk- und Hilfsstoffen genutzt. Es dient zudem als Feuchtigkeitsspender für die Haut, sofern es richtig angewendet wird[6].



Artikel zu Wasser in Kosmetik[6]

Terpenes - What ar they and what do they do in cosmetics ?

What are terpenes?

Terpenes belong to a large group of chemical compounds. There are around 8,000 terpenes and up to 30,000 substance related. They are considered lipids and occur mainly in plants[1].

What are terpenes chemically?

Fig. 1 The isoprene

Terpenes are all derived from isoprene. This was named after the resin resin turpentine. One can not make out a clear group of substances from the terpenes, as there are too many variations. They occur as hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones, glycosides, alcohols, ethers or carboxylic acids. They are found mainly in plants, mostly in their oils, resins, flowers, leaves and barks. Many of them are antimicrobial, and insect pheromones[2].

One differentiates into the following subgroups:

- Monoterpenes: There are about 900 known pieces. They have high bioavailability and anti-carcinogenic effects. They are part of essential oils. e.g. Geraniol, citral, limonene, menthol

- Sesquiterpenes: There are more than 3000 known. They consist of three isoprene units, all derived from farnesyl pyrophosphate. They are found in vegetable oils of e.g. Hops, roses, chamomile. e.g. Humulan, farnesol, bisabolol

- Diterpenes: There are about 5000 pieces known. They each consist of two isoprene units. They are found in some plants. A representative group put the A vitamins such as retinal and retinol there.

- Sesterpene: There are about 150 known pieces. They occur in lower mushrooms, as well as sponges. They have as a basic structure the furan, and special antibacterial effects.

Fig. 3 The squalane molecule

- Triterpene: There are about 1700 pieces. They each consist of 6 Isoprene units, and are all derived from squalane. They come in e.g. Fern, birch and irises in front. Their cyclic variants have Hopan or Steran skeletons.

- Tetraterpenes: Consist of eight isoprene units, and have as subgroup all carotenoids.

- Polyterpenes: Consist of more than eight isoprene units. They are found in natural rubber, e.g. In the rubber tree, or in the latex of certain plants[3].

What are the uses of terpenes?

Terpenes are part of many vegetable oils, and make up a large part of the essential oils. They have very unique smells and tastes, and are therefore used in perfumes and cosmetics. Most recently, they appear promising in the pharmaceutical industry. For example, they are to be used in cancer research, but they have not been thoroughly explored enough. They are also used as environmentally friendly insecticides[4].

What do terpenes in cosmetics do and are they harmful?

Terpenes are found in natural cosmetics, but also in conventional cosmetics. They make up the majority of essential oils, which is why they are contained in many, which is offset with fragrances. They are also contained in herbal extracts and oils. Many of them have good properties for cosmetics, but some are so-called allergens. Citral, limonene, geraniol, etc. May cause skin irritation, redness and itching in sensitive people. Even with people who had no previous symptoms, allergies can train against such substances. So you should make a dermatologist in advance allergy tests in order to exclude early substances for topical application. Due to the sensitizing properties, however, caution should be taken as far as possible[5].



Scientific book about terpenes[2][3][4][5]

Squalane in cosmetics - what does it do and why is it used ?

What is squalane?

Squalane is an oily, odorless and tasteless liquid found in fish (primarily sharks) and plants. It is used in cosmetics and in industry, as well as in chemical analyzes[1].

What is squalane chemically?

Fig. 1 The squalane molecule

Squalane is a so-called triterpene, which consists of three terpene units. Terpenes generally have their own odors, and are found in resins and essential oils. They have an antimicrobial effect and are used as environmentally friendly insecticides. In addition, they have some pharmacologically interesting properties, such as the terpenes contained in hemp are used against cancer[2].

Where does squalane come from?

Squalane was obtained in very significant quantities from sharks, but they are now obtained from squalene. Squalene is found in many plants, and

Fig. 2 The squalene molecule

be hydrogenated to squalane. Squalene and squalane come in e.g. Wheat germ oil, avocado oil or olive oil. Squalane, which is obtained from plants is also referred to as phytosqualan to illustrate its origin[3].

Where is squalane used and why?

Squalan kommt in Kosmetika und Pharmaka zum Einsatz. Hier wird es Beispielsweise in Conditioners, Cremes und Salben benutzt, was auf seinen besonders guten Spreitwert zurückzuführen ist. Es zieht selbst nicht wirklich in die Haut ein, hat aber einen positiven Einfluss auf das Einzierverhalten von anderen Substanzen in einer Emulsion. Zudem ist es stabil gegenüber Oxidation, weshalb es in Sonnencremes benutzt wird[4].



INCI entry on squalane[2][3]

Article on squalane in cosmetics[4]

Waxes in cosmetics - What are their uses ?

What are waxes?

Waxes are organic substances that have some specific mechanical and physical properties. They are used in sports, food technology, handicrafts and cosmetics[1].


What are waxes chemically, and what are their properties?

Wachse sind organische, also Kohlenstoffhaltige, unpolare Verbindungen, welche hauptsächlich aus Estern, Alkoholen und Amiden bestehen. Sie haben keine genau bestimmte Stoffgruppe, da viele verschiedene Mischungen und Verbindungen alle nötigen Eigenschaften aufweisen als Wachs zu zählen. Hierdurch kann keine Stoffgruppe, sondern nur einige mechanische und pysikalische Eigenschaften definiert werden. So, dass sie z.B. ab 20°C knetbar sind, ab 40°C schmelzen und eine leicht viskose Flüssigkeit bilden, bei leichtem Druck polierbar sind, eine grobe bis feine Kristallstruktur aufweisen und farblich durchsichtig oder opak sind. Es gibt ebenfalls natürliche und synthetische Wachse. Die Natürlichen werden in fossil und nicht fossil, sowie pflanzlich und tierisch, eingeteilt. Fossile Wachse wären z.B. Paraffine, tierische Wachse z.B. China und Bienenwachs, und pflanzliche Wachse z.B. Carnauba und Candelilawachs[2].

Where are they used?

Waxes are used in crafting candles, polishes and making (wax) figures. In food technology, they are natural release agents and serve as a coating for e.g. Chewing gum, but also for sealing e.g. Wine to keep this for a long time. In sports, for example, they are used during skiing to improve the gliding ability on snow[3].

Why are they used in cosmetics?

Waxes are used in cosmetics as bodying agents, e.g. Beeswax for firm, but somewhat softer wanted cosmetics, or candelila and carnauba for stronger products. They protect the skin from moisture loss, and form light films which, with hair, provide a light shine and a certain suppleness[4].



INCI Description of waxes[2][4]