Polyethylene glycols in cosmetics - how harmful is PEG?

Was sind Polyethylenglykole ?

Polyethylene glycols (PEG for short) are plastics, so-called polymers, which are used in many areas. They consist of long ether chains and have many useful properties.

How are they set up?

Liquid PEG 400 Fig. 1

PEG is formed when polymerizing ethylene oxide, a highly toxic gas, by alkaline or acid catalysis. PEG has different chain lengths which give it different properties.

Thus, e.g. Chain lengths of:

  • 200-400 g / mol liquid

  • 600 g / mol pasty

  • And from 3000 g / mol solid

At chain lengths between 200 and 35,000 g / mol, they are called polyethylene glycols, from a chain length of 35,000 g / mol they are called polyethylene oxides, since the -OH groups can be neglected at the beginning and end of the polymer.[1]

Where is PEG used?

PEG is used in medicine, as a carrier for tablets, tropics and dragees, as well as a laxative and antidote for hydrofluoric acid and nitrogen triflouride poisoning [2]. It is also used as a preservative for fossils to protect them from environmental influences [3], and as lubricants and release agents in industry [4]. It is used as a softener and base for ointments. It is found in cosmetics in creams, lotion, perfumes, deodorants, lipsticks, toothpastes, hair care products and bath products [5]. In addition, it is used for quick drying of precious woods.

Why is PEG used so often?

PEG is very soluble in water, up to PEG 35.000, which can still be mixed with 50% water, because of that it is a good drying agent, but also humectant, as well as a good emulsifier [6]. It also has a very low toxicity, which is why it can easily meet its medical applications [7]. It is biodegradable up to a molecular mass of 1500. From a temperature of 150 ° C it decomposes [8].

What is the problem with PEG in cosmetics?

PEG makes the skin more permeable, for ingredients of cosmetics, but also for possible toxins. We have to deal with toxins day after day, even if we do not notice it. Our body protects us from bacteria, viruses but also toxins, and our skin accomplishes this task by not letting any unwanted substances enter our bodies. Foreign substances, which our body recognizes as a danger, are prevented from entering the body via antibodies. For this purpose, the body expands the blood vessels of the corresponding skin site, increases the blood flow and sends messenger substances and enzymes to the affected area. This manifests itself as irritation or redness [9]. PEG weakens the natural barrier of the skin, which makes these defenses appear, but many times less effective. [10] Our body also struggles against so-called oxidative stress and ionizing radiation every day. In our atmosphere are free oxygen radicals (O-) and short-wave, high-energy rays such as UV rays, which attack the skin. These are neutralized via outer skin layers and the natural barrier, as well as enzymes [11]. If these protective mechanisms are damaged, radicals and radiation can damage the skin, but also penetrate deeper into the tissue and even cause cancer there [12].

Fig. 2

Are there alternatives ?

Yes, there are alternatives, even ones that you do not have to look for in nature. One of the most promising at the moment is the 2,4-Polysarcosine. It is 100% biodegradable, non-toxic, non-irritating, reddening or affecting the immune system. They are synthetic, therefore they can be tailor-made, and at present they have many possible variations [13]. A natural alternative is the propanediol, which can be made from corn syrup. It has similar water-soluble properties, can also be used as a surfactant for emulsions, and is not toxic. In addition, it promotes the absorption of active ingredients without damaging the skin barrier and has an antimicrobial effect, making preservatives superfluous [14].

Sources to read:

Scientific article on 2,4-polysarcosine as an alternative to PEG [13]

Greenpeace Statement on PEG [8]

Scientific article about 1,2 Propendiol [14]

Article about Polyethylene Glycol [10][11][12]

Wikipedia[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][9]

Alcohol in cosmetics - What is alcohol and why is it used?

  What is alcohol?

Chemically, the term "alcohol" refers to a superordinate class; it describes the possession of a so-called hydroxide (-OH) group on a residual molecule. The term "alkanols" refers to an organic radical on this -OH group. Basically, there are two distinguishing criteria, the number of organic radicals and the number of hydroxy groups [1]

Structural formula of methanol Fig. 1

Here is the difference in organic residues, with:

Strukturformel des Ethanols Abb. 2

  • Primary alcohols

  • Secondary alcohols

  • Tertiary alcohols

And the number of -OH groups and their valence, with:

  • Monovalent (ending -ol)

  • Divalent (ending -diol)

    Structural formula of glycerine Fig. 3

  • Trivalent (ending -triol)

Examples of these would be e.g. Methanol for a monohydric, primary alcohol. Isopropanol for a monohydric secondary alcohol. Tert-butanol for a monohydric, tertiary alcohol. Ethanol for a monohydric alcohol. Ethanediol for a dihydric alcohol. And glycerin (glycerol) for a trivalent alcohol[2]

Also, there are so-called fatty alcohols which have long carbon chains from 8-22C upwards, e.g. the cetyl alcohol with a chain length of 16 carbon atoms.[3]

Structural formula of tert-butanol Fig. 4

How do alcohols come from?

The production and formation of alcohols varies from alcohol to alcohol. Ethanol is obtained by fermentation of sugar with the aid of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungus (yeast fungus) under exclusion of air [4]. Methanol has been converted into wood by the dry distillation of wood, but nowadays more economically by the reforming of natural gas, with carbon dioxide and hydrogen reacting together to form methanol [5]. Isopropanol is obtained by addition of water to propene [6]. Tert-butanol is produced by water addition to isobutene [7]. Ethanediol is prepared by the addition of water to ethylene oxide [8]. And glycerol is obtained as a by-product of biofuel production, but can also be produced by influencing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungus instead of ethanol [9]. Most fatty alcohols are made by saponification of waxes. [10]

What do we use alcohols for?

In general, alcohols are used as solvents, including methanol, ethanol, cyclohexanol and glycerol. Depending on their properties, they have many other uses. Ethanol e.g. Highly known as a stimulant, the word "alcohol" usually refers to ethanol, and is present in all alcoholic beverages, from draft beer to high-proof absinthe [11]. Isopropanol is used as a disinfecting, cleaning, defoaming and antifreeze agent [12]. Glycerin is used as antifreeze and lubricant, as well as a moisturizer in cosmetics [13]. Fatty alcohols are used as surfactants. [14]

Particular alcohols in the cosmetics industry are ethanol, glycerol and fatty alcohols. Ethanol is a natural and excellent solvent for oils and fats, it also has a disinfecting effect [15]. Glycerine is a natural carrier and moisturizes [16]. And fatty alcohols are used as surfactants in shampoos and similar cosmetics [17].

What are "good" and what are "bad" alcohols?

Whether good or bad depends heavily on the quantities and the concentration, because: "The quantity makes a thing a poison". As with alcohol, small amounts are not a problem, even healthy. In contrast, larger amounts are harmful [18]. Only the harmful minimum dose counts. For glycerol or propanediol, this is very high, i. That it takes large amounts to become harmful [19]. For example, in ethanol is this moderate, so that a quantity in the range of a few tenths to almost a few hundred milliliters can be harmful [20]. However, under certain thresholds, the positive effects can be exploited without creating negative ones. Thus, ethanol is e.g. taken in very small amounts dermal, amounts that make no difference, and certainly not in the quantities in which ethanol is contained in cosmetics [21]. Methanol has a very low harmful minimum dose, so even 0.1g per kg of body weight are dangerous, and 1g per kg of body weight life threatening [22].

Ethanol is taxed in Germany, in order to escape this enormous cost increase, many producers pay the liquor. The Vergällen happens via the addition of phthalates, which arise from petroleum, and in addition to the damage to the skin can make even impotent. Denatured alcohol can be recognized by the terms "Alcohol denat." And "SD Alcohol".[23]

However, there are also some manufacturers, especially natural cosmetics, who do not use denatured alcohol, this is referred to as so-called "alcoholic spirit". This alcohol is pure, 96% vol, ethanol[24].

Are there any non-alcoholic cosmetics?

Yes and no. If a cosmetic article is "non-alcoholic," it means only that it does not contain bad, dehydrating, or otherwise harmful alcohols. It does not mean, however, that no alcohol is included[25].

Which alcohol-based cosmetics are harmless, and what must be respected?

Generally, be careful what you buy. When buying, pay special attention to the ingredients and their INCI name. Products with "Alcohol denat." And "SD Alcohol" should be avoided. Glycerol and propanediol are safe and give a good, healthy, skin feel. Ethanol with the designation "ethanol" or "ethyl alcohol" is largely harmless, but its concentrations vary from producer to producer, but is dispensed sparingly by high costs. And fatty alcohols such as cetyl alcohol are generally harmless.[26]

Sources to read:

Statement zu Phtalaten des Bayrischem Bundesamts für Gesundheit und Lms [23]

Informationen zu Methanolvergiftungen[22]

Informationen zum Nutzen und den Gefahren von Isopropanol [12]

Pharmaartikel zu Weingeist [24]

Genaueres zur alkoholischen Gärung [4]

Genauere Beschreibung der Methanolherstellung [5]

Alkoholgehälter von verschiedenen Getränken [11]

Wikipedia[1][2][3][6][7][8][9][10][11][13][14][15][16][17][21][18][19][20][25][26]

Bildquellen: Wikipedia Commons, Flickr. Alle Bildrechte gehen an die Besitzer der Bilder Abb.5 – Felix Triller |cover photo

Parabens in cosmetics - how dangerous are they really?

What are parabens in general?

Parabens are derivatives of para-hydroxybenzoic acid, thus their salts and esters. They are used in cosmetics, medicines, tobacco and food. They serve as preservatives and protect against bacteria and fungi.

Basic structure of parabens R = Any alkyl radical Fig. 1

How are parabens structured?

As mentioned above, parabens are the salts and esters of para-hydroxybenzoic acid [1], which for a long time has also been called catalpinic acid, since it is found in the plant parts of catalpa spp. (Trumpet tree) occurs. [2]

The parabens differ in the residue on the carboxyl group (-COO), these may be metal ions, e.g. Be sodium, or organic radicals such as methyl or ethyl esters. Today, methyl and ethyl parabens are mainly used. Less so propyl and butyl esters, and isoethyl, isopropyl, and isobutyl esters have been rarely used for some time.[3]

Why are parabens used at all?

Parabens are cheap preservatives and their antimicrobial and fungicidal effects are highly praised, with a wide range of applications. [4] They are easy to manufacture and even small amounts are sufficient to allow a regulated performance. They have little competition, as most alternatives are not so close to the skin, or with a proven, more toxic effect than the used parabens.

What is the problem with parabens?

There have been some theories for years that parabens are highly harmful to health, and little has been proven so far. Many statements are so far only speculation and suspicion, whose investigations are often too contradictory for a clear statement. In fact, parabens are similar to the female sex hormone estrogen, which is responsible, among other things, for breast growth. This similarity can cause the tissue to grow unchecked and can lead to breast cancer [6]. In male fetuses and children up to three years, parabens can lead to feminization [7]. However, many of these theses are an eternal back and forth from true to false. There are no conclusive findings on the question "are parabens harmful." [8]

Are there safe alternatives to parabens?

Yes, nature also preserves some substances that protect the skin, protect it from microbes and fungi, and also bring along vitamins and other substances that have a positive effect on your health. Phytoalexins they are called, plant antibodies.

Flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids help conserve cosmetics and have their own otherwise helpful properties. Flavonoids additionally protect against UV rays and other short-wave light, and thus against photo-oxidative destruction [9]. Alkaloids provide better blood circulation to the skin [10]. Terpenoids which have typical, pleasant odors and are regarded as a possible tumor therapy or cancer remedy [11].

Sources to read:

SCCS report on feminization of children by parabens[7]

Articles on Parabens in Cosmetics [3][4][5][6][8]

Report of the ingredients of Catalpa spp. [2]

Article on flavonoids and their properties[9]

Scientific report on alkaloids [10]

Pharmaceuticals report on terpenes and terpenoids [11]

Wikipedia [1][9][10][11]

Image sources: Wikipedia Commons, Flickr. The image rights go to the owners of the images. cover photo

Metals in deodorant - How dangerous are aluminum salts?

What are aluminum salts in general?

Aluminum is a metal that we find everywhere today. In the form of foil, as cans for soft drinks and food or as a material in industry and private use. For years it has also been found in the form of metal salts in deodorants and antiperspirants. Antitranspirantien.

What are aluminum salts?

Fig. 1

Metals can undergo ionic bonding by donating one or more electrons to a suitable nonmetal partner. Electromagnetic forces now hold these partners together.[1] The most commonly used aluminum salt in deodorants is aluminum hydroxychloride (ACH).[2]

It consists of a mixture of different aluminum salts with the recurring constituents, Al (aluminum), Cl (chlorine) and OH (hydroxide).[3]

Why are aluminum salts used in deodorants?

ACH prevents excessive perspiration, reliable and long-lasting. It is relatively cheap, easy to dose and therefore has an excellent price-performance ratio. It can be used without limit, and is therefore, with many cosmetics manufacturers, very popular. In addition, there are few alternatives that fulfill this job as well as they do.[4]

What are the problems with aluminum salts?

ACH acts in two main ways:

1) It extracts moisture from the skin, thus narrowing the sweat channels of the skin

2) It partially denatures the skin's proteins, creating a film over the skin that penetrates and blocks the pores and sweat ducts.

So Aluminum salts are proven to dry out the skin and destroy proteins to counter sweat. [5]

Also, ACH is a neurotoxin, which at higher concentrations affects the blood-brain barrier, a natural barrier to central nervous system (CNS) fluid trajectories. It can damage the DNA and affect the activities of genes. [6]

In addition, they are in strong suspicion to trigger breast cancer and Alzheimer's, but this is still controversial and it is disputed whether elevated aluminum concentrations in breast cancer tissue as a trigger or even as a by-product.

The fact is, however, that larger amounts of aluminum do not stay in the body and are separated from the kidneys, and then excreted. In humans with renal diseases such as kidney hypofunction, aluminum can accumulate in the body.[9]

Are there natural and harmless alternatives?

Yes and at the same time no. There are some competitors who are harmless and gentle, but do not work comparably well with ACH. However, compromises must be made, and one's own health preceded by a slightly better performance. [9] [9]

As alternatives, there are deodorants, which reduce the acidic environment by basic minerals, and thus the growth of bacteria, and thus malodour. They also partially protect against sweat leakage. But also natural oils and extracts such as grape, coriander, pomegranate or sage help to suppress odors. With fats and waxes, such as berries and beeswax, cocoa, and shea butter, excessive sweating can be avoided, at least for the most part. [10] [10]

Sources to read:

Stiftung Warentest for testing deodorants with and without aluminum salts[4]

BfR statement on increased uptake of aluminum via deodorants[9]

Study on increasing Alzheimer's risk by aluminum uptake[7]

Description of risk factors of aluminum salt containing cosmetics[5][6][7]

Wikipedia[1][2][3][8][10]

Plastic in cosmetics - why silicone-free?

What are silicones anyway?

Silicones are so-called polymers, long chains of repeating segments. They are semi-synthetic and made from petroleum. They are available as liquids or pastes, as soft plastics or resins. However, in this article we only treat the liquid and pasty. They are non-toxic, chemically resistant and odorless. They are used in cosmetics, the food industry, in shampoos and other cleaning products, massage oils, as a basis for creams and ointments, and as a lubricant and foam reducer. [1]

How are silicones constructed and how are they made?

Silicones, as mentioned above, are polymers with recurring segments. Only these segments are recorded, and bounded by square brackets. These brackets are then noted the number of repetitions. Also, the tails are shown. [2]

The chemical structure of poly-dimethyl-siloxane Fig. 1

Silicones are characterized by their silicon-oxygen compounds. Of these, they can have up to four pieces (four oxygen on a silicon would correspond to quartz). These sometimes make their properties apart from the chain length. [3]

They are prepared by allowing pure silicon powder to react with methyl chloride on a suitable catalyst, at 300 ° C. Different products are separated and polymerized with each other depending on the application.[4]

Why are silicones used in cosmetics?

In cosmetics, silicones are found in the form of silicone oils. These silicone oils are touted for fake effects. They are supposed to make the skin more even, make the hair smoother and more shiny and sedate, and give creams and ointments a thicker consistency. They are often used by their effects at the first application, these being only placebo effects. [5]

Why are silicones bad for the skin and hair?

Silicones have no effect on the skin and hair, any visible "effect" is just a mirage. In fact, the water-repellent silicones only penetrate the skin and hair, penetrate and smooth out bumps, but they do more harm than good. They cover themselves as a film over skin and hair and do not let moisture in or out, the same goes for sebum and dirt. They prevent the skin and hair from getting rid of excess sebum and thus provide clogged pores. The skin dries and the hair becomes brittle. If you use silicone-containing cosmetics again, the damage they have done is only covered up, thus ensuring false security.[6] Also, some silicones are difficult to cope with the environment. Elastomers and thermoplastics (baking molds, for example) are not naturally biodegradable. Liquid silicones, such as in cosmetics, can be catalytically decomposed by minerals in sedimentary layers and subsequently converted by microorganisms into SiO22 (sand). However, this process takes decades.[7]

Why silicone-free?

Silicones have fake effects and damage skin and hair, and high-quality cosmetics want to deliver real benefits and improvements, while remaining as healthy and tolerable as possible. Here, nature offers many alternatives, which have healing and soothing effects, while being gentle and very tolerable. Natural alternatives include active ingredients such as vitamins and phytosterols which help the skin and hair of proven proportions. Such an oil is e.g. the broccoli seed oil, which cares for skin and hair and is also very easy on the skin and hair.[8]

Reference to source for reading

Information on silicone in cosmetics[5][6]

Broccoli seed oil as a silicone substitute[8]

Wikipedia [1][2][3][4][7]

Image sources: Wikipedia Commons. All image rights go to the owners of the images | Fig. 2 | cover photo

Surfactants in cosmetics - Why better sulfate-free?

What are surfactants actually?

The word "surfactant" comes from the Latin "tensus" and means tension. Because, in general, they reduce the surface tension or interfacial tension of liquids so much that dispersions become possible or easier.

You can represent one of four types[1]:

1. Nonionic surfactants

2. Anionic surfactants

3. Cationic surfactants

4. Amphoteric surfactants

How do surfactants work and how are they structured?

Surfactants are always the same, regardless of their type. They have a hydrophilic (water loving) head and a lipophilic (fat loving) body. In chemistry, the principle that "like dissolves in like", i. Due to their molecular structure, fats dissolve in fats and fat-like substances, they are also said to be non-polar. While water is polar and dissolves polar substances.[2] Surfactants have both polarities, they are in fat, as soluble in water. By this ability one can e.g. Dissolve sunflower oil in water by adding the right surfactant. However, the two liquids do not "dissolve" into one another, they merely become easier to mix and no longer separate into separate layers.[3] The polarity is due to the difference in electronegativity (how much the atoms want to absorb electrons). If this is not very large (e.g., C-H) then an atom is nonpolar. However, if this difference is quite large (e.g., O-H), then the atom is polarized.[4]

A visualization of the functionality of surfactants:

On display are the polar heads (in red with a minus to represent the polarity), with their nonpolar, fat-soluble tails. They surround an area of ​​oil (non-polar) with their tails directed to the oil, and dip their heads into the aqueous phase (polar). Fig. 1

What are the differences between the types of surfactants?

Type 1: nonionic surfactants. These are those surfactants which do not consist of anions and cations, but act on certain functional groups. With them, the electronegativities of the atoms are so great that they are very polar. Such nonionic surfactants usually have several -O- (ether) or -OH (hydroxide) groups. Most surfactants of this type are difficult to degrade or have harmful degradation products. It has been trying for some time to avoid it[5]

Type 2: anionic surfactants. Such surfactants are usually acid-base salts of carboxylic acids and strong lyes or sulfate salts of fatty alcohols. They consist of a charged head and a lipophilic body / tail. Anionic surfactants are often contained in organic, so-called core, and lubricating soaps. These are biodegradable and mainly gentle on the skin. Sulphate Saline surfactants, however, can greatly irritate the skin.[6]

Type 3: cationic surfactants. These are quaternary ammonium salts, which are a bit more complicated. With them, all four valence electrons of nitrogen are bound with one carbon. These conditions give the nitrogen a positive charge which is balanced by a suitable anion (negatively charged particle). These surfactants are biologically well degradable and have as far as possible no negative effects on the skin[7]

Type 4: Amphoteric surfactants. They contain both a positively charged nitrogen cation and a negatively charged carboxylic acid anion or a negatively charged sulfate anion. These are compensated separately by their charge ratio. The ammonium (N++) is balanced by a cation (e.g., Cl-). And the carboxylic acid or sulfate through a cation (e.g., Na++). These charges contribute to a polarity which acts in both directions, a so-called zwitterion. These surfactants are extremely skin tolerant if they are a -COOH group, less so if they have a sulphate group.[8]

Why are surfactants used in cosmetics at all?

In cosmetics, different active substances, carrier substances and bodying agents are often used. These are often not soluble in each other. Creams are designed to distribute active ingredients on the skin, and require a certain consistency, which can not be created without surfactants. Fluids and serums are designed to concentrate highly concentrated active ingredients, and are best absorbed quickly, in contrast to creams, which are mostly intended to protect and stay on the skin for a longer period of time. Shampoos, toothpaste and soaps are said to purify, condition and refresh, surfactants combine their basic active ingredients, but in addition they serve to remove fat and sebum from the skin and hair, in shampoos and soaps, as well as grind and deposits on the teeth, in Toothpastes, eliminate. Here they bind the, normaly, non-water-soluble particles with water, making it easier to remove them. Without surfactants, cosmetics like we know them would not exist with all their benefits, remedies and improvements.

An unwanted foam bath, due to the escape of extinguishing foam at an airport Fig. 3

Why is there "good" and "bad" within the surfactants?

To say something is only good or bad is very short, and often wrong. Everything has its good and bad sides, our job is to assess the value and balance of these attributes. Has a lot of good sides, but a bad bad, in which one would have to compromise, so is looking for an alternative. Such alternatives are often found in nature, but not always. The highest principle is health and tolerability, in which no compromises are made. Following these two aspects, compromises are made against diminished performance. Or simply to love the health, we renounced to outrageous benefits.

Where you can say no and why?

Surfactants have some aspects as shown above, which also have some effects and side effects. The type 1 surfactants are often poorly biodegradable and more skin tolerant. With the exception of the polysorbate alkylglucoside, which is derived from sugarcane derivatives. The polyalkylene glycol ether e.g. belongs to one of the more dominant nonionic surfactants, the fatty alcohol ethoxylates. They are made using ethylene oxide, which is a descendant of the petroleum industry. [9] Those of type 2 are moderately to good skin-friendly, and biodegradable, with the exception of sulfates, which are very skin incompatible, and not only damage sensitive skin, but can also cause irritation and allergies in people without a history. The Type 3 are difficult to biodegrade, and moderately tolerated by the skin. And those of type 4 are well tolerated by the skin and moderately biodegradable. [11] What to look out for is that you can not make a precise difference between natural and synthetic. Many of these products are considered natural because they occur as such or their educts are of natural origin. One should watch what is sold as natural, because not everything is natural is also always good. Of course, sulfate salt surfactants are harmful in the long run.

Why are sulfate surfactants used at all?

Sulfate surfactants have excellent properties, sometimes foaming and the generation of stable dispersions. They are relatively cheap and can also be used in so-called "hard water" without losing their efficiency as the e.g. Sodium salt surfactants do. The trace elements in water, magnesium and calcium form insoluble salts that have no surfactant properties and can also deposit as lime.[13]

What is the problem with sulfate surfactants?

Sulfate surfactants are irritating, irritating and they can cause allergies. They not only remove grease and dirt, but also healthy skin, making them more susceptible and permeable. Also, these types of surfactants affect the proteins of the skin by denaturing them, i. The proteins, which are long chains of hydrocarbons, amino acids, carboxylic acids as well as sulfates and sulfides, are composed in very precise forms, which is done by intermolecular forces. These forces can be overcome by environmental influences, and thus the protein can be deformed. [14] The best example is a common fried egg, in which the proteins of the liquid and transparent albumen are deformed by heat, and thus become solid and opaque protein. These processes are often difficult to undo, so it is not possible for a chef to "fry" an egg. Chemically it is possible, and our body does it, but this process takes time. [15] The resulting problem is simply explained. Our body is a finely tuned machine, and largely robust against environmental influences. However, for a normal and controlled process many components must harmonize with each other. A deformed protein is like a broken piece in a puzzle, it can not work properly and this whole process is disturbed, such. Supplying the skin with nutrients, or defense against pathogens. This makes the skin more susceptible to redness and irritation.

Why do we only use sulfate-free surfactants?

Their irritating properties and long-term influence on the skin are not much appreciated in qualitative cosmetics, especially since there are many alternatives from nature, which have very similar positive aspects, and are quite compatible with the skin. Also, such surfactants are not as well degraded by the environment as those derived from nature. [16] Sugar cane alkyl glucosides or natural sodium salts of the fatty acids of natural fats such as coconut oil, cocoa and shea butter, for example, to name a few.[16] Alkylglucoside aus Zuckerrohr oder natürliche Natriumsalze der Fettsäuren von natürlichen Fetten wie Kokosfett, Kakao- und Sheabutter z.B., um ein paar davon zu nennen.

References to the source:

Information on sulfates in cosmetics [13][15][5][6]

More about sodium lauryl sulfate [10][12]

Denaturation of Proteins Explained [15]

Wikipedia [1][2][3][4][7][8][9][11][14][16]

Quellen: Wikipedia 

Erdöl in Kosmetika – Warum immer häufiger ein no-go ?

What is petroleum anyway?

Petroleum is a natural product consisting of long-chain hydrocarbons, sulfur and sulfur compounds, metals and rocks [22]. It arises when organic material e.g. Plants or animals in the upper crust are exposed to elevated pressures and temperatures. Today's crude oil mainly consists of so-called dead marine creatures, microplankton, algae and small animals, which can only be seen under the microscope [21]. It is extracted from rock layers, refined and passed on to consumers. It has been known to us humans for more than a thousand years, under the name of Petroleum, which is composed of the Greek words petra - rock / rock and oleum - oil, which is why it is also called rock oil.

How is oil produced?

Crude oil is formed when dead marine minerals in the upper crust are compressed and heated. It converts the carbohydrates, proteins and lipids contained in the animals into long-chain hydrocarbons. The more pronounced the factors of pressure and temperature are, the more the composition of the crude oil changes. From a temperature of 60 ° C arise in some cases short-chain hydrocarbons such as gaseous methane (also called marsh gas), ethane (which is used as a heating agent), propane and butane (which are contained in gas burners), but also liquid pentane, hexane, heptane and octane which are used as fuels for cars, for heating and for energy production. Between 120-130 ° C arise for the most part, and from 200 ° C arise only short-chain hydrocarbons.

How do we get oil?

The oil is in the upper crust of the earth, which is why we need to drill afterwards. This happens in three stages:

1. The hole

The primary extraction, which uses the natural pressure of oil deposits to bring oil to the surface.

2. The pumping

The secondary production, where water or gas is pumped into the borehole to get petroleum residues to the surface

3. Collect the remains

The tertiary promotion, this steam, polymers, CO2 or chemicals are used to get hold of last remains in the occurrence.

Also drilling rigs are used for sea drilling, these act on the same principles.

What are the problems with oil and its gathering?

Oil production releases vast amounts of greenhouse gases while pumping chemicals and non-biodegradable plastics into the soil and thus into our groundwater. Greenhouse gases such as methane are released by the extraction and refining of crude oil. Sulfur-containing crude, e.g. releases large amounts of SO2 (sulfur dioxide), which in the atmosphere is converted to sulfurous acid and sulfuric acid, which manifests itself as "acid rain". In addition, there are often petrol disasters that irreversibly affect the environment. Leaking oil from drilling rigs, or sinking cargo ships carrying tons of oil on board, released about 100,000 [1] thousand tons of oil into our seas each year. This has catastrophic consequences for the entire planet. The best example of this is the "oil spill" in the Gulf of Mexico, which resulted in follow what still noticeable on the Mississippi delta.

 

Why is petroleum used in cosmetics?

Mineral oil derivatives are used as a base in oils, petrolatum and waxes. They are inexpensive, can be processed in consistent quality, and do not trigger allergies. However, they contain so-called Mineral Oil Aromatic Hydrocarbons, MOAH's short[2].

What consequences do oil-based cosmetics have?

One of the big problems with oil drilling is the fact that radioactive particles, metals and heteroatom compounds, as well as MOAHs, are carried with oil. Long-chain hydrocarbons have little effect on the human body, both positive and negative, but these contaminants already. Metals are among iron, copper, nickel and vanadium. Nickel and vanadium are KMR substances [3], which means they are:

- carcinogenic,

- mutagenic,

-or reprotoxic

Heteroatoms are those organic compounds which have one or more non-carbon (C-C) or hydrogen (C-H) compounds. Such are with under:

Oxygen: Alcohols (such as ethanol for drinking, but also methanol which causes blindness [4]), carboxylic acids (for example vinegar), ketones (for example acetone which is contained in solvents for paints and varnishes, as well as in nail polish removers)

- Nitrogen: Amines and amides (which often smell bad, irritate or are toxic [5]), amino acids (eg, from which our DNA and neurotransmitters, such as dopamine or serotonin, exist [6]), nitro compounds (which eg used in explosives or paint strippers [7])

- sulfur: thiols (which smell horribly [8]), sulphates and sulphides (for example nickel (II) sulphate [9])

- Phosphorus: phosphanes and phosphoric acid esters (highly toxic substances [10])[10])

- Halogens: fluoro-, chloro-, bromo-, and iodoalkanes (eg carbon tetrafluoride, which is used as a refrigerant. [11] Chloroform is a poisonous, volatile liquid. [12] Bromobenzene, which is highly irritating to the respiratory tract. [13] Iodoalkanes, which release free iodine radicals (I-), which in turn attack the skin [14])

However, such particles are mostly removed, only MOAHs are still between eight (in body oils) and 15,000 (in petrolatum) times as high as in food, according to independent tests.[15]

Radium compounds such as sulfates and carbonates are also carried along with the rock. The main part of these compounds consists of the isotope radium-226 with a half-life of 1,600 years [16]. However, it is unlikely that relevant amounts are present in the crude oil. By contrast, larger amounts of slurries of radium-226 compounds are produced by the separation methods, which are often not or not properly disposed of [17], since there are no clear rules.

Another part of the petroleum, in addition to long-chain hydrocarbons, are cyclic hydrocarbons, and so-called aromatics. They differ in the fact that they form both carbon rings and hexagons, which have aromatics as distinct chemical double bonds.[18]

Cyclischer Kohlenwasserstoff            Aromat          Abb. 2

Hierbei ist anzumerken, dass solche Ringe meist sehr giftig sind. Cyclohexan kann dabei z.B. zu Dermatitis führen[19], während Benzen (Benzol ist ein veralteter Begriff) als Krebserregend gilt[20].

However, once a part, even a small one, changes part of a molecule, it can have a huge impact on its properties. Thus, benzene is e.g. Carcinogenic, cinnamon aldehyde, which "contains" the benzene as the major part, gives cinnamon its characteristic odor and taste, and it is quite harmless.

Zimtaldehyd Molekül Abb. 3

Why do not we use any petroleum-based raw materials in our products?

The facts about oil, the pollution of the environment with exhaust gases and waste, as well as the partly strongly varying ingredients are reason enough to look for alternatives. And we find that sufficient in nature. Herbal extracts and ingredients are as environmentally friendly as possible, and often work just as well, if not better and gentler than petroleum derivatives.

To love the environment, and for one's own conscience, such alternatives are the best means.en sind solche Alternativen das beste Mittel.

Source reference for reading and informing:

Radioactive oil slurries [17]

Independent consumer protection tests [2][15]

Methanol poisoning [4]

Benzen, its consequences and uptake ways [20]

KMR list of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety [3]

Petroleum formation and exploitation [21] [22]

Wikipedia [1][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][16][18][19]

Sources: Wikipedia, Stiftung Warentest, Planet-wissen.de, Noxen.de, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety